From Masayuki Onishi, John Pringle lab, Stanford University School of Medicine, October 2017

Promoter: HSP70A/RBCS2
Insert: Lifeact-CrVENUS-3FLAG, APHVIII

host strain: Mach1
ampicillin resistant

SnapGene file

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate for growth at high pH

The ac6 mutant was isolated by Eversole, and originally designated EV 6a. Eversole described his stock as a multigene mutant that frequently had more than two flagella per cell, but we have not observed this phenotype. It is likely that the stock received from Ebersold was the product of a cross rather than the original mutant.

This mutant must be scored on minimal medium at high pH (make TAP medium, omitting acetic acid and using HCl to bring pH to 8.3).


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer. J. Bot. 43:404-407

Levine RP, Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev Genet. 4:397-408


  • Locus:
  • AC6
  • Chromosome:
  • 7

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate (partially suppressed)

The ac15a mutation was UV-induced in Levine’s laboratory. The reason for the acetate requirement is unknown.

This strain grows slowly on HS minimal medium at 15 degrees, but is not clearly acetate-requiring. CC-527 is probably a better ac15 strain for mapping purposes.


Levine RP, Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev Genet. 4:397-408


  • Locus:
  • AC15
  • Chromosome:
  • 9

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate at high pH

This mutant must be scored on minimal medium at high pH (make TAP medium, omitting acetic acid and using HCl to bring pH to 8.3).

Levine and Goodenough reported this mutant has normal pigments and CO2 fixation; the reason for the acetate requirement is not known.


Levine RP, Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev. Genet. 4:397-408


  • Locus:
  • AC35
  • Chromosome:
  • 11

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires nicotinamide

Requires nicotinamide for growth; yeast extract will suffice.
This stock should be scorable as sensitive to 3-acetyl pyridine.

Lin et al. have shown that the NIC2 locus encodes quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase.


Lin H, Kwan AL, Dutcher SK (2010) Synthesizing and salvaging NAD: lessons learned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS Genet. 6

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires nicotinamide (suppressed)

This strain does not seem to be sensitive to 3-acetyl pyridine, and can no longer be scored on HS minimal medium. The early mapping data are ambiguous. The stock is nevertheless of potential interest, since the original Levine card file stated that it may carry a suppressor of pf15 and pf5.


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer. J. Bot. 43:404-407

Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires nicotinamide (suppressed)

This stock was scorable as sensitive to 3-acetyl pyridine when first received, but may have acquired a suppressor. The NIC11 locus was mapped to linkage group IV by Ebersold et al., but Lin et al. in their study of nicotinamide-requiring mutants were unable to score it, and omitted it from further analysis.


Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543

Lin H, Kwan AL, Dutcher SK (2010) Synthesizing and salvaging NAD: lessons learned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS Genet. 6


  • Locus:
  • NIC11
  • Chromosome:
  • 4

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires nicotinamide

This strain is difficult to score on 3-acetyl pyridine, but grows slower than wild type on minimal medium. Please see CC-4337 and CC-4338 for better isolates of this mutant.

Lin et al. showed that the NIC15 locus corresponds to a gene encoding L-aspartate oxidase.


Lin H, Kwan AL, Dutcher SK (2010) Synthesizing and salvaging NAD: lessons learned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS Genet. 6


  • Locus:
  • NIC15 [ASO1]
  • Chromosome:
  • 12

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: impaired motility

This mutant is not difficult to score but individual cells may show some motility.

Please see CC-1038 for more information on the PF20 locus.


  • Locus:
  • PF20
  • Chromosome:
  • 4

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires thiamine

This strain can be scored by failure to grow on minimal medium, but may require restreaking to make the phenotype obvious. It can also be scored by oxythiamine inhibition. Based on its phenotype and map position, this mutant is thought to represent the locus equivalent to the gene on chromosome 8 encoding a bifunctional thiamine monophosphate synthase.


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer. J. Bot. 43:404-407

Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543


  • Locus:
  • THI1
  • Chromosome:
  • 8

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires thiamine

The thi2 mutant requires thiamine, and can grow on thiazole plus vitamin V1 pyrimidine. Unlike some of the other thi mutants, it is not sensitive to oxythiamine. This strain is difficult to score on minimal medium; spot-testing with dilute suspensions works better than streaking or replica plating.


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer. J. Bot. 43:404-407

Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543


  • Locus:
  • THI2
  • Chromosome:
  • 3

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires thiamine

The thi8 mutant requires thiamine or vitamin pyrimidine, and is sensitive to 5 micrograms/ml oxythiamine. Based on its phenotype and map position, it may be a mutation in the gene encoding hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate synthase.


Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543


  • Locus:
  • THI8
  • Chromosome:
  • 5

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires thiamine

This mutant is scorable on minimal medium.


Levine RP, Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev Genet 4:397-408


  • Locus:
  • THI9
  • Chromosome:
  • 2

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate, nicotinamide and thiamine; impaired motility

Ebersold strain 397
This is one of a set of multiply marked strains prepared by Smyth, Ebersold, and colleagues, and incorporates several markers not otherwise found in combination at the time. The pf marker in this strain may be difficult to score. The remaining markers should be OK. The nic marker is best scored on 3-acetyl pyridine.

For more information, please see the following:
CC-536 ac31
CC-599 nic1
CC-1031 pf12
CC-123 thi10


Smyth RD, Martinek GW, Ebersold WT (1975) Linkage of six genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the construction of linkage test strains. J. Bacteriol. 124:1615-1617


  • Locus:
  • AC31, NIC1, PF12, THI10
  • Chromosome:
  • 2,5,6,14

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate and nicotinamide; resistant to antibiotics and metabolic inhibitors (canavanine, cycloheximide, methionine sulfoximine, pyrithiamine, and streptomycin)

CC-28 and CC-29 are a very useful pair of mapping strains, prepared by Smyth, Ebersold and colleagues. Both strains usually give complete tetrads in crosses, and the markers are generally easy to score.

The ac17 mutation (see CC-530) confers a very clean acetate requirement, easily scored by growth on minimal medium (plus nicotinamide in this strain because of the nic13 mutation).

The pf2 mutation (see CC-1025) should be scored as slow-swimming compared to wild type, and nic13 (see CC-864) should be scored by sensitivity to 3-acetyl pyridine rather than by requirement for nicotinamide.

The resistance mutations in this strain are scored as follows:
act2 (see CC-1590), resistant to about 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide
can1 (see CC-863), resistant to 0.5 mg/ml canavanine sulfate
msr1 (first described by Sager, 1955), resistant to 500 micrograms/ml methionine sulfoximine
pyr1 (first described in by Smyth et al., cited here), resistant to 1 microgram/ml pyrithiamine in the absence of thiamine.
sr1 (see CC-112), resistant to 50 micrograms/ml streptomycin

The original strain also carried y1, but this needs to be confirmed before use due to its high interconversion rate with its wild type allele.


Sager R (1955) Inheritance in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardi. Genetics 40:476-489

Smyth RD, Martinek GW, Ebersold WT (1975) Linkage of six genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the construction of linkage test strains. J. Bacteriol. 124:1615-1617


  • Locus:
  • AC17, ACT2 [RPL36a], CAN1, MSR1, NIC13 [NSN1], PF2, PYR1, SR1
  • Chromosome:
  • 1,3,4,6,7,9,10,11

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires acetate and nicotinamide; resistant to antibiotics and metabolic inhibitors (canavanine, cycloheximide, methionine sulfoximine, pyrithiamine, and streptomycin)

CC-28 and CC-29 are a very useful pair of mapping strains, prepared by Smyth, Ebersold and colleagues. Both strains usually give complete tetrads in crosses, and the markers are generally easy to score. Please see CC-28 for more information on the individual mutations.


Smyth RD, Martinek GW, Ebersold WT (1975) Linkage of six genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the construction of linkage test strains. J. Bacteriol. 124:1615-1617


  • Locus:
  • AC17, ACT2 [RPL36a], CAN1, MSR1, NIC13 [NSN1], PF2, PYR1, SR1
  • Chromosome:
  • 1,3,4,6,7,9,10,11

From W.T. Ebersold, UCLA, to Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1973

Phenotype: requires p-aminobenzoic acid

This strain requires 50 micrograms/ml p-aminobenzoic acid; yeast extract will suffice. It cannot use shikimic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or other aromatic compounds. The original mutant description stated that it is killed by 1 microgram/ml sulfanilamide. It is easy to score by failure to grow on minimal or acetate medium. In a test cross to a wild type strain, in which the meiotic tetrad products were dissected on yeast extract, the pab products formed small colonies, but grew adequately when repicked.


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer J Bot 43:404-407

Ebersold WT, Levine RP, Levine EE, Olmsted MA (1962) Linkage maps in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetics 47:531-543


  • Locus:
  • PAB1
  • Chromosome:
  • 3

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

The cr4 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes and accumulates 54S subunit particles. This strain was derived from a cross of the original cr4 mutant to a wild type strain equivalent to CC-124. It can be scored as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

The cr4 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes and accumulates 54S subunit particles. This strain was derived from a cross of the original cr4 mutant to a wild type strain equivalent to CC-124. When first tested this strain was easy to score as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees, but it appears to have acquired a suppressor.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

The cr3 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes. This strain is the original mutant. When first tested this strain was easy to score as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees, but it may have acquired a suppressor.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

The cr3 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes. This strain is the product of a cross of the original mutant to a wild type strain equivalent to CC-124. When first tested this strain was easy to score as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees, but it may have acquired a suppressor.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

The cr2 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes and accumulates 54S subunit particles.. This strain is the product of a cross of the original mutant to a wild type strain equivalent to CC-124. When first tested this strain was easy to score as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees, but it appears to have acquired a suppressor.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Elizabeth Harris, Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University, 1974

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

The cr2 mutant is deficient in chloroplast ribosomes and accumulates 54S subunit particles.. This strain is the product of a cross of the original mutant to a wild type strain equivalent to CC-124. When last tested,this strain could be scored as acetate requiring on minimal medium at 15-17 degrees.


Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

Product 5.6.3 from a cross of wild type to the original ac20 cr1 double mutant (CC-154 mt-, a strain now discontinued.)

This strain was used by Boynton et al. (1972) in their study of mutants deficient in chloroplast ribosomes, and defines the cr1 mutation in terms of chloroplast ribosome content (accumulation of 54S subunits). This strain now shows a ribosome profile on sucrose gradients more like that of the ac20 cr1 double mutant. It grows slightly on minimal medium. Scoring is easier at cool temperatures, e.g. 15 degrees.


Boynton JE, Gillham NW, Chabot JF (1972) Chloroplast ribosome deficient mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardi and the question of chloroplast ribosome function. J Cell Sci 10:267-305

Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179


  • Locus:
  • CR1
  • Chromosome:
  • 12

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: cold sensitive on minimal medium

Product 5.6.1 from a cross of wild type to the original ac20 cr1 double mutant (CC-154 mt-, a strain now discontinued.)

This strain was used by Boynton et al. (1972) in their study of mutants deficient in chloroplast ribosomes, and defines the ac20 mutation in terms of chloroplast ribosome content (deficient in both ribosomal subunits). Like other mutants deficient in chloroplast ribosomes, ac20 is easiest to score by slow growth on minimal medium at cold temperature (15-17 degrees). Considered purely as a genetic marker, ac20 is not the best choice for this region of linkage group I. However, CC-43 appears to be a stable strain with the correct ac20 phenotype.

Herrin and colleagues determined that ac20 overaccumulates an unspliced 23S pre-RNA in the chloroplast, and that the primary defect in the mutant is in ITS processing rather than splicing.


Togasaki RK, Levine RP (1970) Chloroplast structure and function in ac-20, a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. I. CO2 fixation and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase synthesis. J Cell Biol 44:531-539

Levine RP, Paszewski A (1970) Chloroplast structure and function in ac-20, a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. II. Photosynthetic electron transport. J Cell Biol 44:540-546

Goodenough UW, Levine RP (1970) Chloroplast structure and function in ac-20, a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. 3. Chloroplast ribosomes and membrane organization. J Cell Biol 44:547-562

Boynton JE, Gillham NW, Chabot JF (1972) Chloroplast ribosome deficient mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardi and the question of chloroplast ribosome function. J Cell Sci 10:267-305

Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (1974) Chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in Chlamydomonas. Selection and characterization of mutants blocked in ribosome formation. J Cell Biol 63:160-179

Herrin DL, Chen YF, Schmidt GW (1990) RNA splicing in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. Self-splicing of 23 S preRNA. J Biol Chem 265:21134-21140

Thompson AJ, Herrin DL (1991) In vitro self-splicing reactions of the chloroplast group I intron Cr. LSU from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in vivo manipulation via gene-replacement. Nucl Acids Res 19:6611-6618

Holloway SP, Herrin DL (1998)Processing of a composite large subunit rRNA. Studies with chlamydomonas mutants deficient in maturation of the 23s-like rrna. Plant Cell 10:1193-1206


  • Locus:
  • AC20
  • Chromosome:
  • 1

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: requires acetate, somewhat chlorophyll deficient

From R.P. Levine, brought to Duke University by N.W. Gillham, 1968
This strain appears yellow-green in color, especially on minimal medium. The color difference from wild type is rather subtle. The AC29 locus is closely linked to mating type. This allele, ac29a, is linked to mt-, whereas the original ac29 (CC-45) is linked to mt+. For an ac29 strain whose phenotype is easier to score, see CC-3054 ac29-3, a deletion mutant isolated by Patrick Ferris.

The AC29 locus encodes a protein that is a homolog of the plant protein ALBINO3, which is required for the integration of the light-harvesting complex into the thylakoid membrane.


Ferris PJ (1995) Localization of the nic-7, ac-29 and thi-10 genes within the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 141:543-549

Ferris PJ, Armbrust EV, Goodenough UW (2002) Genetic structure of the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 160:181-200

Bellafiore S, Ferris P, Naver H, Göhre V, Rochaix JD (2002) Loss of Albino3 leads to the specific depletion of the light-harvesting system. Plant Cell 14:2303-2314


  • Locus:
  • AC29 [ALB3]
  • Chromosome:
  • 6

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: requires acetate, somewhat chlorophyll deficient

From R.P. Levine, brought to Duke University by N.W. Gillham, 1968
This strain appears yellow-green in color, especially on minimal medium. The color difference from wild type is rather subtle. The AC29 locus is closely linked to mating type. This allele, ac29, is linked to mt+, whereas ac29a (CC-44) is linked to mt-. For an ac29 strain whose phenotype is easier to score, see CC-3054 ac29-3, a deletion mutant isolated by Patrick Ferris.

The AC29 locus encodes a protein that is a homolog of the plant protein ALBINO3, which is required for the integration of the light-harvesting complex into the thylakoid membrane.


Ferris PJ (1995) Localization of the nic-7, ac-29 and thi-10 genes within the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 141:543-549

Ferris PJ, Armbrust EV, Goodenough UW (2002) Genetic structure of the mating-type locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 160:181-200

Bellafiore S, Ferris P, Naver H, Göhre V, Rochaix JD (2002) Loss of Albino3 leads to the specific depletion of the light-harvesting system. Plant Cell 14:2303-2314


  • Locus:
  • AC29 [ALB3]
  • Chromosome:
  • 6

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: requires arginine

From R.P. Levine, brought to Duke University by N.W. Gillham, 1968. The arg1 mutant was UV-induced by Ebersold, and has been shown to be deficient in acetylglutamyl phosphate reductase. It can grow on arginine, ornithine or citrulline.

The original arg1 strain tended to bleach when deprived of arginine. A test cross of this strain to wild type CC-125 in 1979 showed 2:2 segregation for light-green, slow-growing colonies.

This mutant becomes suppressed easily. A suppressor that was EMS-induced by Loppes was reported by Levine and Goodenough (1970) to map to linkage group I. The arg1 mutant could also be suppressed by the ac141 suppressor described by Cosbey et al. (1965).

CC-861 arg1 mt+ is cleaner than this strain and easier to score.


Hastings PJ, Levine EE, Cosbey E, Hudock MO, Gillham NW, Surzycki SJ, Loppes R, Levine RP (1965) The Linkage groups of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Microb Genet Bull 23:20-21

Levine RP, Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev Genet 4:397-408


  • Locus:
  • ARG1
  • Chromosome:
  • 1

Boynton-Gillham laboratory, Duke University

Phenotype: requires arginine

CC-48 came from R.P. Levine, and was brought to Duke University by N.W. Gillham in 1968. This is a stable arginine-requiring strain, easy to score.

The arg2 mutation, which was UV-induced by Eversole, is an allele at the ARG7 locus, encoding argininosuccinate lyase, and is also known as arg7-8. These two mutations are capable of intragenic complementation, and are often used to create diploid strains. Diploids formed between arg2 and the original arg7 mutant are stable and grow at wild type rates in the absence of arginine. Intragenic complementation is also seen between arg2 and arg7-2, arg7-3, arg7-4, arg7-5, arg7-7, and arg7-12 (see Loppes et al., 1972, and Matagne, 1978).

The wild type gene at this locus was cloned by Debuchy et al., and used to transform arg7 mutants to arginine independence.

The arg2 and arg7 mutants require arginine (50 micrograms per ml is recommended) and cannot use ornithine or citrulline. They also grow well on medium containing yeast extract (4 grams per liter).

The following references pertain to arg2 and to other alleles at the ARG7 locus:


Eversole RA (1956) Biochemical Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Amer J Bot 43:404-407

Ebersold WT, Levine RP (1959) A genetic analysis of linkage group I of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Z Vererbungsl. Z Vererbs 90:74-82

Hudock GS (1962) The pathway of arginine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Biochem. Biophys Res Commun 9:551-555

Hudock GA (1963) Repression of arginosuccinase in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Biochem. Biophys. Res Commun 10:133-138

Gillham NW (1965) Induction of chromosomal and nonchromosomal mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardi with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Genetics 52:529-537

Loppes R (1966) Damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Z. Vererbs. 98:193-202

Loppes R (1969) A new class of arginine-requiring mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Mol. Gen. Genet. 104:172-177

Strijkert PJ and Sussenbach JS (1969) Arginine metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Evidence for a specific regulatory mechanism of the biosynthesis. Eur J Biochem 8:408-412

Sussenbach JS and Strijkert PJ (1969) Arginine metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. On the regulation of the arginine biosynthesis. Eur J Biochem 8:403-407

Loppes R (1970) Selection of arginine-requiring mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardi after treatment with 3 mutagens. Experientia 26:660-661

Levine RP and Goodenough UW (1970) The genetics of photosynthesis and of the chloroplast in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Annu Rev Genet 4:397-408

Loppes R and Matagne RF (1972) Allelic Complementation between arg-7 mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Genetica 43:422-430

Loppes R and Strijkert PJ (1972) Arginine metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Conditional expression of arginine-requiring mutants. Mol Gen Genet 116:248-257

Loppes R, Matagne RF, Strijkert PJ (1972) Complementation at ARG-7 locus in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Heredity 28:239-251

McMahon D and Langstroth P (1972) The effects of canavanine and of arginine starvation on macromolecular synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. J Gen Microbiol 73:239-250

Strijkert PJ, Loppes R, Sussenbach JS (1973) The actual biochemical block in the arg-2 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Biochem Genet 8:239-248

Konvalinkova V, Matagne RF, Loppes R (1974) Induction and analysis of revertants
from various arg-7 mutants lacking argininosuccinate lyase in Chlamydomonas
reinhardi. Mut Res 24:69-72

Schimmer R and Loppes R (1975) Forward mutations induced by nitrosoguanidine during the synchronized cell-cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mol Gen Genet 138:25-31

Matagne RF (1976) Arg-7 mutant X wild-type crosses in Chlamydomonas reinhardi: study of the enzyme produced in diploid strains. Mol Gen Genet 146:209-214

Matagne RF (1978) Fine structure of the arg-7 ciston in chlamydomonas reinhardi. Complementation between arg-7 mutants defective in argininosuccinate lyase. Mol Gen Genet 160:95-99

Matagne RF and Vincenzotto C (1979) Study of the argininosuccinate lyase produced by triallelic complementation in triploids of Chlamydomonas reinhardi [proceedings]. Arch. Int Physiol Biochim 87:832-833

Debuchy R, Purton S, Rochaix JD (1989) The argininosuccinate lyase gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an important tool for nuclear transformation and for correlating the genetic and molecular maps of the ARG7 locus. EMBO J 8:2803-2809

Gumpel NJ, Purton S (1994) Playing tag with Chlamydomonas. Trends Cell Biol 4:299-301


  • Locus:
  • ARG7
  • Chromosome:
  • 1

From the Indiana University algal collection, prior to 1978

This strain was obtained by the Boynton-Gillham laboratory from the Indiana University algal collection (now UTEX) prior to 1975. It is the same strain as UTEX 97, originally isolated by Provasoli in New York.


Lewin RA (1949) Genetics of Chlamydomonas—paving the way. Biol Bull 97:243-244

Wiese L and Wiese W (1977) On speciation by evolution of gametic Incompatibility: a model case in Chlamydomonas. Amer Nat 111:733-742